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3300BC - 1300BC
Timelines of History

Home | 13,000 BC - 3300BC | 3300BC - 1300BC

 

 

3,300BCE The beginning date of the Mayan calendar.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.2-3)
3,300  Around this time the trade among Subcontinent and rest of World Began. Archeological evidence shows that how sophisticated technology was used by Aryans.
 (AIAA,  p.42)
3,300  Archaic cylinder seals [of Sumeria] of this time were later collected by financier Pierpont Morgan.
 (SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)
c3300BCE  A well-preserved prehistoric corpse, later named Otzi, was found in 1991 in a glacier on the Hauslabjoch Pass in Austria [northern Italy]. It was kept at the Univ. of Innsbruck for study. In 1998 analysis indicated that the Ice Man had internal parasites and carried the woody fruit of a tree fungus as a remedy. Tattoos on the body were also found to be placed over areas of active arthritis.
 (StuAus, April '95, p.99)(SFC, 4/27/96, p.A-5)(SFC, 12/25/98, p.A4)(SFEC, 5/7/00, p.T4)

3,300-3,200BCE  In 1998 clay tablets were reported from this date from the tomb of a king named Scorpion. The tablets had writing that recorded linen and oil deliveries as a tithe to the king. The tomb was in a cemetery at Gebel Tjauti in Suhag province, some 250 miles south of Cairo. Egyptologists John Coleman Darnell and wife Deborah discovered the tableau in 1995.
 (SFC, 12/15/98, p.C5)(SFC, 4/16/02, p.A4)

3300-1000 The second earliest known civilizations occupied the Aegean world. The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations rose and fell over this period. Primal stage of Indus Valley civilization
 (eawc, p.1)

3,250BCE King Scorpion ruled Upper (southern) Egypt.
 (AM, 5/01, p.54)

3,200BCE Semitic people come to the area around Byblos, Lebanon. It was then called Gebal and the people Giblites, who with flat axes cut timber from the mountains.
 (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)
c3200BCE Mahabharata War.  Geeta revealed. Purana rewritten as revealed by Supreme Soul. A white limestone vase was made depicting Sumerians offering gifts to the goddess Innin along with scenes of daily life in Uruk. It survived for thousands of years and came to be called the Sacred Vase of Warka.
 (SFC, 6/13/03, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/18/03, p.D6) (AIAA, 2001)
3,200BCE Archeological evidence indicates that the Sumerians used wheeled transportation.
 (eawc, p.1)
3,200BCE The Sumerians developed pictographic writing about this time.
 (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A6)
3,200BCE The National Museum of the American Indian in New York City has Valdivian female figurines from Ecuador that date back to 3200 BCE.
 (SFC, 12/4/94, p.T-3)

3200-2500BCE Henges, enormous ditches enclosing circular constructs, are enigmatic features of Neolithic and Bronze age Britain.
 (SFC,11/11/97, p.A12)
3200-1600BCE The Indus Valley civilization grew up along the banks of the Indus River in what is now Pakistan. The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Dara showed the development of multi-level houses and city-wide plumbing. A natural disaster that altered the course of the Indus River appears to have brought about the collapse of this civilization.
 (eawc, p.1)

3,100BCE Menes, the legendary first pharaoh of Egypt, ruled upper Egypt from Nekhen before he conquered lower Egypt and moved his capital to Memphis. Aftermaths of Mahabharta War shake Aryans. Decline in Vedic Civilization. Sanskrit Language disappears for some centuries.
 (NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.586)
c3100 BCE  The upper and lower kingdoms were united to form the 1st Dynasty of Egypt. The fertile Nile Valley and prevailing environmental conditions led to the formation of villages along the riverUpper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the north. These villages grew into 'kingdoms' centered around Naqadah (later Hierakonopolis) in the south and Behdet (later Buto) in the delta. According to tradition, the upper and lower kingdoms were united into one centralized government by King Menes around 3100 BCE. However, modern scholars are unsure whether King Menes was actually several kings, including Narmer and Aha. Menes' reign lasted a substantial 62 years before being killed by a hippopotamus (again according to tradition).  The 1st dynasty lasted until about 2890 BCE.
 (HNQ, 11/2/00)
c3,100BCE In the protodynastic period of Egypt "Scorpion" ruled  and was followed by Narmer.
 (R4,1998)
3100BCE Cuneiform writing emerged in Mesopotamia. The wedge-shaped characters were used to record the first epics in world history, including "Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta," and the first stories about "Gilgamesh."
 (eawc, p.1)
3100BCE Writing was related to Sumerian language.
 (V.D.-H.K.p.10)
3100BCE The first known incarnation of Stonehenge, the ancient stone monument in the south of England, is thought to have been built by native Neolithic peoples around this time. Archaeological interpretation of the site is primarily based on a series of modern excavations carried out since 1919. The studies have concluded that there were three different building periods representing markedly different materials and methods. Stonehenge I was primarily an earthen structure built by native Neolithic peoples using deer antlers as picks. Two entry stones were also placed to the northeast of the circle, one of which (the "Slaughter Stone") survives in the latest monument.
 (HNQ, 3/3/01)

3100-2770BCE The Archaic Period of Egypt. Narmer united Egypt and hieroglyphic writing developed. [see 3400BCE]
 (eawc, p.1)
3100-2700 In Egypt the limestone "Stele of the Serpent King" has a bas-relief of a falcon in profile above a nearly abstract curving stroke of a snake. It is now in the French Louvre.
 (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

3100-2500BCE The village of Skara Brae on the Orkney mainland was inhabited continuously over this time. Inhabitants were settled farmers who ate sheep, cattle, grain and fish.
 (SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)

c3050  In Egypt Hor-Aha ruled and was followed by Djer, Djet, Den, Anedjib, Semerkhet, and Qa'a. These rulers comprised the 1st dynasty. [see 2950]
 (R4,1998)

c3000 BCE Evidence of human habitation in the Yosemite Valley of California.
 (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)
3000BCE In California radiocarbon tests indicated human habitation at the SF bay side foot of San Bruno Mountain back to this time.
 (SFEC,12/29/97, p.A13)
c3,000 BCE "Bison Hunter" villages around Middle Lake in Modoc Ct., Ca., were carbon-dated to this time.
 (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T9)
c3000BCE Maize and other crops were introduced in the lowlands of what is now northern Belize.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.A)
3000BCE The use of coca in Bolivian culture can be traced back to at least this time. It is commonly called hoja sagrada, or sacred loaf.
 (SFC, 6/29/00, p.A12)
c3000BCE In Britain timber temples were constructed prior to stone circles. Remains of one was found in 1997 at Stanton Drew in Somerset that measured 443 feet on the outer diameter.
 (SFC,11/11/97, p.A17)
3000BCE Chur, the capital of the Swiss canton of Graubunden, dates back to this time.
 (Wired, Dec. '95, p.76)
3000BCE The fishing village of Daixi at the eastern end of the Qutang Gorge in China is the site of a Neolithic culture from this time.
 (NH, 7/96, p.58)
3000BCE Ships transported timber from Byblos to Egypt.
 (NG, Aug., 1974, p.156)
c3000BCE Thoth developed the Egyptian calendar whose year begins with the autumn equinox. The year was divided into 12 months of 30 days with 5 or 6 days added at the end but not counted as a part of any month.
 (K.I.-365D)
c3,000BCE Ayurveda, a holistic Indian science, had its beginnings. It later taught that the balancing of the mind, spirit and body is the secret of health, vitality, longevity and beauty.
 (SFC, 4/25/00, p.C6)
c3,000BCE In Macedonia the town of Ohrid was established on Lake Ohrid, the 2nd deepest lake in the world.
 (SFC, 8/9/99, p.A8)
c 3,000BCE In the area of present Lithuania at the end of the 3rd millennium a new wave of nomadic cattle-raisers moved in from the south and south-west and brought with them a corded pottery culture.
 (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)
c3,000BCE A Neolithic temple at Mnajdra, Malta, dates to this time.
 (AM, 7/01, p.15)
c3,000BCE The goddess as a cultural figure began losing power about this time as the process of reading and writing developed. In 1998 Dr. Leonard Shlain published "The Alphabet Versus the Goddess: The Conflict Between Word and Image."
 (SFC, 1/19/99, p.B1)
c3000BCE On the Orkney mainland the 12 Stones of Stennes were built about this time.
 (SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)
c3000BCE Gold and silver began to be refined via cupellation, a process that produces 300 parts lead for every part silver.
 (NH, 7/96, p.50)
c3000BCE Bituminous surface deposits were exploited in the Near East as early as this time.
 (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.56)
3000 BCE It is suspected by Earth scientists that the sun shone particularly brightly about this time. This episode is called the Altithermal, and may have contributed to the rise of the early civilizations. Another similar high heat episode occurs around 1000 CE.
 (NOHY, 3/90, p.127)
c3000BCE Scientists say that the weather changed about this time and that the first El Nino Pacific Ocean temperature flip occurred. Analysis of Peruvian coastal middens of this period indicated a diet change from tropical mollusks to cold water mollusks. The idea was first proposed in 1983 and evidence was added from Japan and Greenland. Skeptics claim that the change was due to mollusks harvested from now vanished warm water lagoons.
 (SFC, 9/13/96, p.E2)
3,0000BCE Urartu existed in eastern Anatolia starting about his time until it was defeated and destroyed by the Medes.
 (http://www.atmg.org/ArmenianFAQ.html#q6)
c3000BCE The Osceola mudflow from Mt. Rainier, Wa., struck. It was estimated to have been 60 times as massive as the 1985 mudflow in Columbia that killed 23,000 people.
 (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.A16)

3000-2500BCE On Malta the Tarxien phase is marked by the collapse of the temple culture.
 (AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.44)

3000-2000BCE Bronze might have been reinvented in ancient Afghanistan around this time. True urban centers rose in two main sites in Afghanistan--Mundigak, and Deh Morasi Ghundai. Mundigak (near modern day Kandahar) had an economic base of wheat, barley, sheep and goats. Also, evidence indicates that Mudigak could have been a provincial capital of the Indus valley civilization. Ancient Afghanistan was a crossroads between Mesopotamia, and other Civilizations.
 (www.afghan, 5/25/98)
3000-2000BCE Early Minoan civilization, centering around Crete, named after the legendary Cretan king. Early, middle, and late are periods divided by Sir Arthur Evans. Pottery was decorated with incised or pricked patterns filled in with white powdered gypsum to make a pattern on a black background up to this time. Early Minoan I began to make colored decoration. Ornament was restricted to simple geometrical patterns. The pottery was made without a wheel. In this period short, triangular daggers in copper are found. In Early Minoan II Pottery designs are more free and graceful, simple curves appear. The potter's wheel was introduced. Rude and primitive idols in marble, alabaster, and steatite are found, but the use of flint and obsidian was not wholly abandoned. Early Minoan III begins to show seals with a kind of hieroglyphic signs upon them, apparently imitated from Egyptian seals.
 (R.M.-P.H.C.p.15)
3000-2000BCE In Scotland the Clava cairns, a mile from Culloden, are 3 sizable stone burial chambers encircled by stone monoliths.
 (SFEC,12/797, p.T4)
3000-2000 Ebla, Syria, was a commercial capital of this era. In 1975 tens of thousands of cuneiform tablets were found that supported Ebla's role.
 (WSJ, 9/30/99, p.A26)

3000-1500BCE The city of Harappa flourished as part of the Indus Valley civilization in Pakistan.
 (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.A)

3000-1200 The Bronze Age.
 (MT, 3/96, p.5)

2950-2775 Dynasty I. [see 3050]
 (AM, 7/01, p.)

2920  The beginning of the Archaic period in Egypt. The first Pharaonic dynasty began.
 (NG, 9/98, p.16)(SFC, 12/15/98, p.C5)

c2890  In Egypt Hotepsekhemwy ruled and was followed by Raneb, Nynetjer, Seth-Peribsen and Khasekhemwy. These rulers comprised the 2nd dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

c2850BCE In China Emperor Fushi decreed that people would be identified with a formal family name as well as a familiar first name.
 (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.6)

2800BCE The Bronze Age began.
 (WH, 1994, p.12)
c2800BCE In Britain Stonehenge Phase I saw the construction of the henge's bank and ditch. A pair of upright stones formed a ceremonial entrance with a larger stone opposite. 56 small pits encircled the whole area.
 (HT, 3/97, p.22)
c2800BCE Khufu commanded the building of the Great Pyramid. It took an estimated 100,000 people 30 years to construct.
 (WH, 1994, p.12)(K.I.-365D, p.122)(HT, 5/97, p.26)

2772BCE In Egypt the 365 day calendar was introduced.
 (eawc, p.1)

c2750BCE In the Orkney Islands a chambered tomb, Maes Howe, near the Stones of Stennes was constructed. It also exhibits a collection of stone carved Viking runes. The tomb was vandalized and rebuilt in 9th century Norse times.
 (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)(SFEM, 10/10/99, p.24)
c2750BCE Queen Paubi lived in the city of Ur in Mesopotamia.
 (WSJ, 3/15/00, p.A24)

2700BCE Domesticated maize in Mexico goes back to this time.
 (SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)
2700BCE Snofru, father of the Pharaoh, who built the Great Pyramid at this date.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.124)
2700BCE King Djoser founded the 3rd dynasty of Egypt and began the period of the Old Kingdom which lasted to 2200. He built the Step Pyramid of Djoser, the first known pyramid in Egypt. During this time the power of the Pharaoh was absolute.
 (eawc, p.1)
2700BCE The Sumerian King, Gilgamesh, ruled the city of Uruk which had grown to a population of over 50,000. Gilgamesh was the subject of many epics, including the Sumerian "Gilgamesh and Enkidu in the Nether World" and the Babylonian "Epic of Gilgamesh."
 (eawc, p.1)

2698BCE  The beginning of the Chinese calendar. Feb 19,1996 begins the Year of the Rat and the year 4694.
 (enRoute, 2/96, p.24)(SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.7)

2686-2668 Sanakhte ruled and began the 3rd dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2686-2181BCE Chairs in the early dynasties of Egypt stood on what looked like animals' legs.
 (SFC, 5/11/96, p.E-4)
2686-2181 Old Kingdom Low reliefs, now in the French Louvre, enumerate an ideal meal to be taken to a tomb.
 (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

2668-2649 Djoser [Zoser] ruled in the 3rd dynasty of Egypt. [see 2610]
 (R4,1998)

2650BCE Pharaoh Snefru's scribes left a description of 40 ships bearing timber arriving to Egypt from Byblos. On Mar 9,1925, the Egyptian Ministry of Public Works announced the discovery of the 5,000-year-old tomb of King Sneferu.
 (NG, Aug., 1974, p.156)(HN, 3/9/98)

2649-2643 Sekhemkhet ruled in the 3rd dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2643-2637 Khaba ruled in the 3rd dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

c2,627BCE Parts of Caral, a city in the Supe Valley of Peru, was built about this time. The 170-acre site, 14 miles from the coast, was discovered in 1905 but not dated till 2001.
 (SFC, 4/27/01, p.A3)(SFC, 6/15/01, p.D6)

2637-2613 Huni ruled during the 3rd dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2620  In Egypt the beginning of the Old Kingdom.
 (NG, 9/98, p.16)

2620-2500 A polychrome stele of Princess Nefertiabet depicts her dining in a one-shoulder leopard-skin gown. It is now in the French Louvre.
 (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)
2620-2500 The painted limestone statue of a "Seated Scribe" dates to this period. It is now in the French Louvre.
 (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

2613-2589 Snefru ruled. This was the end of the 3rd and the beginning of the 4th dynasty. [see 2650]
 (R4,1998)

2610BCE King Zoser built the Stepped Pyramid in Egypt. [see 2700, 2668]
 (WSJ, 9/16/99, p.B1)

2601BCE Nik'ure, the son of a pharaoh, died and left what was later recognized as the oldest Last Will and Testament. "Being of sound mind and body" He left his wealth to his wife, 3 children and to another woman.
 (SFEC, 8/6/00, Z1 p.2)

2600BCE The Great Pyramid was built around 2600 BCE. [see 2800BCE]
 (WH, 1994, p.12)
c2600BCE In Egypt in 1999 the tombs of the priest Kai, built in this period, were found in a cemetery west of Cheop's pyramid.
 (SFC, 5/27/99, p.A18)

2600-1900BCE The Indus Valley Civilization flourished with Harappa as one of its great cities. Undeciphered Indus Valley script on inscribed seals and molded tablets have been found there.
 (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)

2589-2566 Khufu ruled in the 4th dynasty of Egypt. [see 2560]
 (R4,1998)

2566-2558 Djedefre ruled in the 4th dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2560  In Egypt the Pharaoh Khufu built the Great Pyramid of Cheops. About this time a pyramid was built for the mother of Cheops, Queen Hetepheres, that rose about 100 feet. Two more were built for his 2 wives, Henutsen and Meryetes. Laborers reportedly went on strike to get a daily ration of garlic.
 (eawc, p.1)(SFC, 1/3/98, p.A8)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.8)

2558-2532 Khafre ruled in the 4th dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2550-2400 The "Standard of Ur," a tapered box with rows of people depicting a battle and its aftermath, was made about this time.
 (WSJ, 5/22/03, p.D8)

2532-2504 Menkaure ruled in the 4th dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2504-2500 Shepseskaf ruled in the 4th dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

c2500BCE Aryans re gather themselves and conquer Arbistan (Modern Arabia) This was later celebrated by people of Arabia. Construct Vedic Temples in Arbistan.  
 (SSFC, 3/31/02, p.A22)
2,500BCE By this time the Sahara desert looked much as it does today.
 (ATC, p.109)
2,500BCE A flute made of vulture bone from this time is on exhibit at the Paris Museum of Music.
 (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T7)
2,500BCE Wooden sandals developed by Egyptians with the transfer of technology from Aryans.
 (SFE, 10/1/95, p.T-10)
2500BCE  A 4,500 year-old perfectly intact alabaster statue of Pharaoh Khaefre is part of a show on loan from Cairo at St. Petersburg, Florida.
 (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)
c2500BCE The tomb of an Egyptian child was found to contain toys that included miniature pins and balls and a wicket, the first evidence of bowling.
 (SFC, 7/28/97, p.A3)
c2,500BCE In Egypt Pharaoh Chephren is considered to have been the builder of the Great Sphinx of Giza, which is believed to show his face. In 2002 Christine Zivie-Coche authored "Sphinx: History of a Monument."
 (SFC, 5/26/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/10/03, p.W7)
2500BCE The first signs of human habitation at Trier (Germany) date to this time.
 (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T8)
c2,500  In India excavations in 2000 revealed a walled Aryan city  of the middle 3rd millennium at the Dholavira site in Gujarat state.
 (AM, 11/00, p.22)
2500BCE On Malta by about his time the megalithic temples were no longer in use.
 (AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.47)
2,500 BCE The Nuraghic Civilization thrived in Sardinia.
 (SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T4)
2500BCE Troy II, the second oldest discernible settlement on the site of the mound of Hissarlik in northwest Turkey, a good 1200 years before the estimated date of the Trojan War.
 (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49)
c2500BCE The Ring of Brodgar on the west Orkney mainland consisted of 60 stones in a perfect circle 340 feet in diameter.
 (SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)

2500-2000 The Magan-period of Oman. Numerous slag heaps and third millennium remains from mining and smelting have been found at the oasis village of Maysar in central-eastern Oman.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)

2500-1500BCE Cities flourished in the Indus Valley.
 (WH, 1994, p.12)
2500-1500BCE Mohenjo-Daro in southern Pakistan was an early urban center. As many as 40,000 people lived there
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.74)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.D)

2500-1300 In the Dhofar region of Oman, a fortress was built at Shisur next to a permanent spring and used up to 1500CE.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.52)

2498-2491 Userkaf ruled toward the end of the 4th dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

2491-2477 Sahure ruled at the end of the 4th dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2477-2467 Neferirkare ruled at the beginning of the 5th dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2467-2460 Neferefre ruled in the 5th dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2453-2422 Niuserre ruled in the 5th dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2450BCE The Troy treasure discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1873 was dated to a Bronze Age Troy of about this time.
 (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)

2422-2414 Menkauhor ruled in the 5th dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2420-2270  Egypt, time of the Sixth Dynasty.

2414-2375 Djedkare ruled at the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

c2,400BCE A site at Chien-kou near Handan of China's Longshan culture shows strong evidence of warfare between communities.
 (NH, Jul, p.30)
c2400BCE In Egypt the bas-reliefs lining the Mastaba of Akhethetep depict the rural life of a prosperous landowner. The chapel is in the French Louvre.
 (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)
2400BCE Dagan, a name that appears in early Mesopotamia, and that enters into the composition of proper names in Babylonia about this time. Dagan was later a name for head of the Philistine pantheon.
 (R.M.-P.H.C.p.99, p.104)

2375-2345 Unas ruled in the 6th dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2348BCE Jul 17, "My Bible also revealed that Noah came ashore on Mt. Ararat on the 17th day of the seventh month, 2348BCE." In 1999 William Ryan and Walter Pitman authored "Noah's Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries about the Event That Changed History." They demonstrate how the rising Mediterranean broke through a natural dam in the Bosporus Strait and flooded a freshwater lake that expanded into the Black Sea. [see 5,600BCE]
 (NG, Nov. 1985, edit., p.559)(NH, 12/98, p.13)
2348BCE Nov 25, Biblical scholars have long asserted this to be the day of the Great Deluge, or Flood. [see Jul 17, 2348]
 (HN, 11/25/98)

2345-2333 Teti ruled in the 6th dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

2345-2181 The "Striding Figure of Meryrahashtef," a 22 inch nude statue of a minor 6th dynasty official, was made.
 (WSJ, 1/16/02, p.A14)

2340-2315BCE  Sargon I founded and ruled the city-state of Akkad, after he left the city of Kish where he was an important official. He was the first ruler to maintain a standing army. His empire lasted less than 200 years.
 (eawc, p.1)

2332-2283 Pepi I ruled in the 6th dynasty of Egypt. A pyramid of Queen Ankh-sn-Pepi, wife of Pepi I, was discovered in 2000. The "Pair Statue of Queen Ankh-Nes-Meryre II and her son Pepi II Seated" was part of an Egyptian show on view at the NY Met in 1999.
 (R4,1998)(WSJ, 9/21/99, p.A24)(SFC, 4/3/00, p.A10)

2320BCE Sargon conquered the independent city-states of Sumer and instituted a central government.
 (eawc, p.2)

c2300BCE Phoenicians, a seafaring people, began living along the Levantine coast.
 (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A14)
2300BCE Sumerian cuneiform texts mention the land of Magan (possibly Oman) as a source of copper and diorite for the states of Mesopotamia.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)
2300BCE A culture traceable to Siberian ancestors made its way eastward across Alaska and through the Arctic to Ellesmere Island's Bache Peninsula. From there Greenland lies just 25 miles across open water in summer or solid sea ice in winter.
 (NG, 6/1988, 762)
2300BCE The Hmong people lived on the central plains of China. The gradually moved to the mountains of Indochina and Burma and then to Laos and Thailand.
 (SFC, 6/9/96, DB p.2)
c2300BCE A civilization later called the Bactria Margiana Archeology Complex existed in what later became Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Evidence of writing was found at the Annau ruins in 2000.
 (SSFC, 5/13/01, p.A12)

2300-2000 There was cultural exchange between the Indus Valley civilization and Mesopotamia.
 (eawc, p.2)

2283-2278 In Egypt Merenre ruled in the 6th dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

2278-2184 In Egypt Pepi II ruled in the 6th dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

2270BCE Egypt, collapse of the Old Kingdom.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.3)

2205-1766 In China the Hsia Dynasty unfolded. No archeological evidence has confirmed this. [see 2100-1600]
 (eawc, p.2)

2200BCE In what is now Bahrain settlements and temples of the city state of Dilmun, known as the city of the gods in ancient Sumerian literature, were found by Danish archaeologists in the 1950s.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.48)
2200BCE A culture contemporary with the city state of Dilmun (now Bahrain) was found in 1959 on the island of Umm-an-Nar off of Abu Dhabi.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.48)
2200BCE In Egypt the first intermediate period began with the collapse of the Old Kingdom due to crop failure and low revenues due to pyramid building projects.
 (eawc, p.2)
2200BCE In Greece European invaders, speaking the earliest form of Greek, entered the mainland.
 (eawc, p.2)

2181BCE In Egypt Wadjkare ruled in the 7th dynasty and was followed by Qakare.
 (R4,1998)

2170BCE In Egypt the beginning of the First Intermediate period.
 (NG, 9/98, p.16)

2160BCE Meryibre ruled in the 9th Dynasty and was followed by Merykare, Kaneferre and Nebkaure in the 10th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

2145BCE Idin-Dagan, a king of Babylonia. and his son Isme-Dagan.
 (R.M.-P.H.C.p.104)

2137BCE Oct 22, This is the date of the earliest recorded eclipse according to the Shu King, the book of historical documents of ancient China. Two royal astronomers, Hsi and Ho, failed in their duties to predict the eclipse due to too much rice wine and were executed.
 (SCTS, p.27)

2134-2117 Intef I ruled in the 11th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

2130BCE By this time Sumer regained its independence from Akkadian rule but did not revert to independent city-states. Sumer was ruled from Ur.
 (eawc, p.2)

2117-2069 Intef II ruled in the 11th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

2113BCE Ur's golden century began when King Ur-Nammu expanded the Sumerian empire and made his capital the wealthiest city in Mesopotamia.
 (AP, 4/15/03)

2100BCE Byblos ( Pre-Phoenician city) was burned to the ground probably by the Amorites.
 (NG, Aug., 1974, p.156)
2100BCE The Sumerian King List was written. It recorded all the kings and dynasties ruling Sumer from the earliest times. Eridu was named as the earliest settlement and archeological evidence seems to confirm the claim.
 (eawc, p.2)
c2100BCE Stonehenge Phase II incorporated 60 "bluestones" from the Preseli Mountains in southwest Wales, about 135 miles away. 90 bluestones were set up in a horseshoe shape within a circle of another 60. Some 500 years after Stonehenge I fell into disuse, builders created a radically different Stonehenge with dozens of stone pillars weighing up to 4 tons.
 (HT, 3/97, p.22)(SSFC, 12/24/00, p.T5)(HNQ, 3/3/01)
2100BCE Amorites came from the Arabian peninsula and were the first important Semitic settlers in the area of Damascus. They established many small states.
 (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A26)

c2100-1900 In Stonehenge Phase III the builders encircled the bluestones with sarsen stones, a sandstone (probably from a quarry in Avebury, 20 miles away). These were topped by caps and the bluestones were re-arranged and dug into the ground. The axis of the circle was also re-calculated so that one way Stonehenge points to the summer solstice at sunrise and lined up the other way it points to the winter solstice at sunset.
 (HT, 3/97, p.22)(SD)

2100-1700BCE Egypt, time of the Middle Kingdom.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.3)

2100-1600BCE Xia Dynasty of China. The Ba people controlled salt production on the Yangtze River. They then slowly migrated upstream and in 316BCE were subjugated by the Qin. Fuling was a burial site for the kings of Ba. Fengdu was the first capital of Ba. The 1996 Tujia minority claim descent from the Ba.
 (NH, 7/96, p.31)
2100-1600 The protohistoric Xia period. [see 2205-1766]
 (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

2080BCE In Egypt the beginning of the Middle Kingdom.
 (NG, 9/98, p.16)

2070BCE In China the Xia period began according to results from government funded studies in 2000 CE. This was about the middle of the prehistoric Longshan culture.
 (SFC, 11/10/00, p.D4)

2069-2060 Intef III ruled in the 11th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

2060-2010 Menuhotep I ruled in the 11th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

2050BCE In Egypt the period of the Middle Kingdom began with its capital at Thebes. It lasted to 1786BCE. About this time "The Plea of the Eloquent Peasant" was written calling for a benevolent ruler.
 (eawc, p.2)

2010-1998 Menuhotep II ruled in the 11th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

2000BCE The first agricultural tribes appear on the Bactrian Plain (Afghanistan).
 (NG, March 1990, p.62)
  Turkman SSR, bronze-age mounds indicate that Central Asians built cities around oases and developed a flourishing civilization with monumental architecture, sophisticated gold and silver craft, and irrigation agriculture.
 (NG, March 1990, V.I. Sarianidi)
c2000BCE At Arbor Low in Derbyshire, England, a Bronze Age stone circle was constructed.
 (SFEM, 10/11/98, p.21)
c2000BCE  Silbury Hill, located on the prehistoric site of Avebury (named after nearby Avebury, England), is the largest prehistoric mound in Europe. The artificial hill, which rises up 130 feet, was constructed over three separate phases beginning at least 4,000 years ago. Although the shape of the mound is similar to smaller earthen constructions used for burials, its purpose remains a mystery.
 (HNQ, 6/8/01)
2000BCE The initial phase of what scientists call Stonehenge III was begun about 100 years after Stonehenge II with the lentil structure familiar to modern visitors. The builders continued improvements on Stonehenge III up until about 1550 BCE, well before historical records of the Druids or the Romans. Both Stonehenge and a neighboring circular monument were added to UNESCO`s World Heritage List--a listing of cultural and natural sites--in 1986.
 (HNQ, 3/3/01)
2,000BCE For as many as 4,000 years, the salty sand of the Taklimakan Desert in China held well-preserved mummies wearing colorful robes, boots, stockings and hats. The people were Caucasian not Asian. The bodies have been exhumed from the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang province since the late 1970s.
 (SFC, 5/6/96, p.C-1)
2000BCE About this time the Egyptians domesticated the cat in order to catch snakes. Advances in astronomy enabled the Egyptians to predict the annual flooding of the Nile.
 (eawc, p.2)
c2000BCE An Egyptian painting on an interior tomb wall depicted 6 men scrubbing, wringing and folding a cloth.
 (SFC, 10/11/97, p.E3)
2000BCE By this time Baltic amber reached the Mediterranean and was found in ancient Mycenaean shaft graves.
 (PacDis, Winter/'97, p.10)
2000BCE The Timucuan Indians lived on Cumberland Island, Georgia, back to this time.
 (Sky, 4/97, p.43)
2,000BCE The Hittites lived around what is now Cappadocia. They mixed with the already-settled Hatti and were followed by the Lydians, Phrygians, Byzantines, Romans and Greeks. The name Cappadocia comes from the Hittite for "land of pretty horses."
 (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T14)
c2000BCE In India Tantra, a quasireligious doctrine, dates back to this time. Its first texts were in Sanskrit and the original adherents practiced ritual copulation.
 (WSJ, 12/7/98, p.A1)
c2000BCE The Sumerian goddess Inanna was a fertility figure.
 (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.7)
c2000BCE A palace was built at Qatanah, 12 miles south of Damascus, Syria, that was discovered in 1999.
 (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A6)

2000-1790BCE Egypt, time of the Twelfth Dynasty, the peak of the Middle Kingdom when the Pharaohs won back some of the power which the monarchs of the Old kingdom had enjoyed.
2000-1790 The wooden statue of chancellor Nakhti and carved face of governor Hapidjefai date to the Middle Kingdom. They are now in the French Louvre.
 (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

2000-1600BCE In Mesopotamia the Old Babylonian period began after the collapse of Sumer, probably due to an increase in the salt content of the soil that made farming difficult. Weakened by poor crops and lack of surplus goods, the Sumerians were conquered by the Amorites, situated in Babylon. The center of civility shifted north. The Amorites preserved much of the Sumerian culture but introduced their own Semitic language, an early ancestor to Hebrew, into the region.
 (eawc, p.2)
2000-1600BCE The Middle Minoan period. Middle Minoan I finds polychrome decoration in pottery with elaborate geometrical patterns; we also discover interesting attempts to picture natural forms, such as goats and beetles. There then follows some great catastrophe. Middle Minoan II includes the period of the great palace of Phaestos and the first palace of Knossos. This period also includes the magnificent polychrome pottery called Kamares ware. Another catastrophe occurs. The second great palace of Knossos was built and begins the Middle Minoan III. It was distinguished by an intense realism in art, speaking clearly of a rapid deterioration in taste. Pictographic writing was clearly developed, with a hieratic or cursive script derived from it, adapted for writing with pen and ink.
 (R.M.-P.H.C.p.17)
2000-1600 In Oman a transitional culture known as early Wadi Suq.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)

2000-1550BCE The Babylonians built an empire.
 (WH, 1994, p.12)

2000-1500 In Greece the Minoan civilization, named after the Cretan ruler Minos, reached its height with central power in Knossos on the isle of Crete. The culture was apparently more female-oriented and peaceful than others of the time.
 (eawc, p.2)

2000-1000 Early preclassic period of the Maya.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.B)
2000-1000 In Italy Europeans slowly began to inhabit the north by way of the Alps. They brought the horse, the wheeled cart, and artistic knowledge of bronze work to the Italian peninsula. The Greeks and the Etruscans occupied different regions of the peninsula during the 8th century.
 (eawc, p.2)

2000-500BCE  Orginal Copies of Vedas kept at Badrinath.
 (www.aiaa, 5/25/2001)

1997-1991 Menuhotep III ruled in the 11th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1991-1962 Amenemhet I ruled in the 12th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1990BCE In Egypt the Twelfth Dynasty began. It ended with the Middle Kingdom in 1786BCE. During the period power was somewhat distributed through the social classes. Religion shifted from a wealth-based system to one based on proper conduct. Queen Soreknofru was one of the rulers of this period.
 (eawc, p.3)

1971-1926 Senusret I ruled in the in the 12th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1929-1895 Amenemhet II ruled in the 12th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1900BCE King Melchizedek ruled Salem before it became Jerusalem. He charged everybody in his domain a flat 10% tax.
 (SFEC, 4/6/97, Z1 p.5)
c1900BCE The "Epic of Gilgamesh" was redacted from Sumerian sources written in the Babylonian semetic. The legend was written about 1,600 BCE.
 (eawc, p.3)(SFC, 11/18/99, p.C6)

1900-1500 During this period a Semitic group of nomads migrated from Sumer to Canaan and then on to Egypt. They were led by a caravan trader, the Patriarch Abraham, who became the father of the nation of Israel.
 (eawc, p.3)

c1898-1866 In Egypt the Sphinx of Tanis was made. It was later moved to Paris.
 (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)

1897-1878 Senusret II ruled in the 12th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

c1890BCE Sinuhe, a professional soldier of high rank in Egypt, serving in the army of Amenemhat II was faced with a change in political power and left Egypt. He fled to Byblos, where he was befriended by a local ruler named Ammienshi, who governed the land of Retenu. He later returned to Egypt, now ruled by Senusret.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.21-32)

1878-1841 Senusret III (Senwosret III) ruled in the 12th Dynasty. He built a funerary complex to link himself with Osiris, lord of Abydos.
 (R4,1998)(AM, 7/01, p.54,56)

1842-1797 Amenemhet III ruled in the 12th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1800BCE By this time the Old Babylonians employed advanced mathematical operations such as multiplication, division and square roots. Their duodecimal system, based on 12 and 6 to measure time, is still used today.
 (eawc, p.3)
c1800  In Egypt walls of limestone were marked with alphabetic inscriptions in the Wadi el-Hol (Gulch of Terror). In 1993 the graffiti markings were discovered by Egyptologist John Coleman Darnell and his wife Deborah and later traced to Semitic people, possibly mercenary soldier scribes or Canaanite workers, living in the area.
 (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A6)(SFC, 11/23/99, p.B10)
c18,000BCE In Zimbabwe caves in the Matopos Hills were decorated with paintings.
 (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A13)

1800-1400BCE The Second Semitic period. Macalister has five historic divisions to cover his excavation of Gezar (Vol. ii, pp. 128-241). This period in pottery shows Egyptian and Cypriotic influence, and here for the first time painted ornament becomes prominent. The figures are outlines in broad brush strokes, and the spaces are filled in afterwards, wholly or partly, with strokes in another color. The subjects are animals, birds, fishes, and geometrical patterns generally, and there can be little doubt that they are crude local imitations of models of Late Minoan ware, directly imported into the country. Ganges Valley civilization.
 (R.M.-P.H.C.p.122)

1798-1786 Amenemhet IV ruled in the 12th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

1790-1700BCE Egypt, time of the XIII Dynasty, marked by a period of decay, loss of unity, and many short-lived rival Pharaohs. This lasted through the Sixteenth Dynasty.

1786BCE In Egypt the period of the Middle Kingdom ended due to dissension between the nobility and the pharaoh. The 2nd intermediate period began and lasted to 1560BCE.
 (eawc, p.2)

1785-1782 Queen Sobeknefru ruled in the 12th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1782-1778 Wegaf ruled at the end of the 12th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

1778-1760 Ameny Intef IV ruled at the end of the 12th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

1766BCE In China the Shang Dynasty, the 2nd dynasty of the country according to tradition, began. It flourished on the banks of the Yellow River from about 1400-1027BCE. The period is known for its use of bronze containers, oracle bones and human sacrifice, which ended shortly after the collapse of the dynasty.
 (eawc, p.3)

1763  Hammurabi, the Amorite King, conquered all of Sumer. He wrote a "Code of Laws" that contained 282 rules including the principles of "an eye for an eye" and "let the buyer beware." It was one of the first codes of law in world history, predated only by the Laws of Lipit-Ishtar.
 (eawc, p.3)

1760BCE The beginning of the Second Intermediate period.
 (NG, 9/98, p.16)
c1760  Hor ruled in the beginning of the 13th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

c1750  Sobekhotep II ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)
1750  Hammurabi established a code of laws. One of the laws was that if a married woman was caught lying with another man, both should be bound and thrown into the river.
 (WH, 1994, p.13)(SFEC, 10/20/96, zone 1 p.2)
1750  Hammurabi died but his empire lasted another 150 years when the Kassites, a non-Semitic people, conquered most of Mesopotamia with the help of light chariot warfare.
 (eawc, p.3)
1750  The Hyksos from Syria and Palestine occupied Egypt and introduced the horse and chariot. Internal problems in the Egyptian state strengthened their position. [see 1600BCE]
 (eawc, p.3)

1750-1111BCE Shang dynasty ruled over China.
 (V.D.-H.K.p.7)

c1747  Khendjer ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

c1745  Sobekhotep III ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1741-1730 Neferhotep I ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1730-1720 Sobekhotep IV ruled in the 13th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

c1720  Ay ruled in the 13th Dynasty. He was succeeded by Neferhotep II and Nehesy in the 14th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

1700BCE Nubia, known as the Kingdom of Kush in the Bible. By this time the Nubians have established sizable cities with a class society of workers, farmers, priests, soldiers bureaucrats and an aristocracy with technological and cultural skills on a level with other advanced civilizations of their day.
 (MT, 10/95, p.10-11)
1700BCE Knossos was first destroyed by an earthquake. Mycenae, the great city of the Peloponnesus, was another earthquake victim about this time.
 (SFC,12/9/97, p.A8)

1700-1250 Troy VI, the bronze age settlement of the site of the Trojan War. The inhabitants probably spoke Luvian, an Indo-European language related to Hittite.
 (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49-50)

1690BCE A kernel of corn was found in 1997 in the McKuen Cave in Eastern Arizona that dated to this time.
 (SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)

1663  In Egypt Shesi ruled at the beginning of the 15th Dynasty and was succeeded by Yakubher, Khyan, Apepi I, Apepi II, Anather in the 16th Dynasty, Yakobaam, Sobekemsaf II in the 17th Dynasty, and Intef VII.
 (R4,1998)

1645BCE In the 1980s CE ice-drilling teams examined cores and found strong traces of a volcanic eruption for this time that was associated to the volcano Thera, or Santorini in the Aegean Sea, which may have wiped out Minoan civilization and started the legend of Atlantis. [see 1626]
 (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.64)[See Nature 328, 6/8/87, and 332, 3/31/88]

1640BCE The Hyksos invaded in horse-drawn chariots.
 (WH, 1994, p.13)

c1633  Tao I ruled in the 17th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

1628BCE The palace at Knossos, Crete, is depicted in the opening of the 1996 book: "Europe: A History" by Norman Davies.
 (WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)

1626BCE Jul, There was a volcanic eruption in the Aegian. The date was counted from tree rings and climactic anoma that create frost rings. [see 1645]
 (SFEC, 1/31/99, BR p.9)

c1600BCE Egypt, beginning of the Hyksos rule. Taking advantage of the unsettled state of Egypt, Asiatic invaders from Palestine entered Egypt and set themselves up as kings, even adopting Pharaonic titles and customs... The Jewish historian Josephus claims to quote the words of an Egyptian chronicler, Manetho, in describing this period of foreign rule... The Hyksos, whoever they were, had a 'blitz-weapon' - the horse drawn chariot which they had copied from the horse-rearing Mitanni of northern Mesopotamia. And the Mitanni in turn got the horse from Persia, together with the art of riding it.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.55-56)
1600BCE In Egypt a revolution against Hyksos rule began in the south and spread throughout the country.
 (eawc, p.3)
c1600BCE Chocolate originated in northern Honduras.
 (SFEC, 5/16/99, BR p.8)
c1600BCE Middle Helladic - Late Helladic I. Archeological period that describes the settlement patterns of Greece at about this time.
 (LSA., Fall 1995, p.6)
1600BCE The Phaestos Disc of terra-cotta found in the excavation of the Cretan palace of Phaestos dating to the Middle Minoan III. It a roughly circular tablet, 15.8-16.5 cm. in diameter. On each face is a spiral band of four coils, indicated by a roughly drawn meandering line; and an inscription, in some form of picture-writing, has been impressed on this band, one by one, from dies, probably resembling those used by bookbinders... On one face of the disc there are 119 signs; on the other face there are 123. they are divided in what appear to be word-groups... by lines cutting across the spiral bands at right angles. These word-groups contain from two to seven characters each. There are forty-five different characters employed.
 (R.M.-P.H.C.p.83)
1600BCE The Kassites, a non-Semitic people, conquered most of Mesopotamia with the help of light chariot warfare.
 (eawc, p.3)
c1600BCE Mounded royal tombs containing artifacts from this time were found in the ruins of the city of Kerma from ancient Nubia.

1600-1500BCE Art pieces attributed to the Xia Dynasty of China are on exhibit at the Shanghai Museum. These include an ax blade, a three legged food vessel, and 3 wine vessels.
 (WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)
1600-1500BCE In India the Aryans invaded the Indus Valley region. In 1999 researchers reported that gene patterns confirmed that Caucasoid invaders entered India between 1000 and 2000 BCE.
 (eawc, p.3)(SFC, 5/26/99, p.C2)

1600-1400BCE Late Minoan period. Late Minoan I pottery is distinguished from the earlier period by the convention that its designs as a rule are painted dark on a light background. The palace of Phaestos was rebuilt. Fine frescoes and admirably sculptured vases in steatite are found. In Late Minoan II the naturalistic figures become conventionalized, and a degeneration in the arts sets in which continues into Late Minoan III. At the end of Late Minoan II an invasion from the mainland occurs apparently resulting in the destruction of the Knossos.
 (R.M.-P.H.C.p.17)

1600-1300BCE Messenia, the home of King Nestor, mentioned in Homer's Iliad, is the site of a well excavated palace that dates to this period.
 (LSA., Fall 1995, p.6)
1600-1300 In Oman a transitional culture known as late Wadi Suq.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)

1600-1200 The Mycenaean civilization on the Greek peninsula emerged. It was named after the leading Greek city of this period.
 (eawc, p.2)

1600-1100BCE The Shang period in China. [see 1300-1100]
 (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1595BCE The Hittites captured Babylon and retreated. They left the city open to Kassite domination which lasted about 300 years. The Kassites maintained the Sumerian/Babylonian culture without innovations of their own.
 (eawc, p.4)

1574  Tao II ruled in the 17th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1573-1570 Kamose ruled in the 17th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1571-1550 Ahmose, Pharaoh of Egypt, engaged the Hyksos at their city of Avaris, and the city of Sharuhen for three years.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.64)

1570BCE The beginning of the New Kingdom. Thebes (which encompassed the site known today as Luxor) was the chief city of Egypt. Pharaohs began to abandon royal pyramids in favor of hidden tombs in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes.
 (NG, May 1985, p.598)(AM, 7/01, p.58)

1570-1546 Ahmose I ruled in the 17th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

1570-1075 The New Kingdom of Egypt built a wealthy empire.
 (WH, 1994, p.13)

1570-1085 A bust of the Royal scribe Meniou was made in limestone during the New Kingdom. It is now in the French Louvre.
 (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

1560  In Egypt the 2nd intermediate period ended. The period of the New Kingdom began when Ahmose defeated the Hyksos and established the XVIII Dynasty. This period lasted to 1087 and was an imperialistic time with new modes of warfare introduced by the Hyksos.
 (eawc, p.3,4)

1555-1350 Egypt, time of the Eighteenth Dynasty. We know that Sekenre's successors of the XVIII Dynasty challenged the Hyksos invaders and in a series of battles drove them beyond the frontiers of Egypt.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.58)

1551-1524 Amenhotep I ruled at the end of the 17th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1550-1528 Amenophis I, Pharaoh of Egypt, inscriptions indicate that he engaged the Nubians in the land of Kush. Some of the southern foes were evidently cave-dwellers (troglodytes), since the inscription goes on to say that 'His majesty captured the Nubian Troglodyte in the midst of his army. [see 1514-1493]
 (L.C.-W.P.p.66)

1550-1525 Pharaoh Ahmose. His sister-wife was Queen Ahmosep-Nefertary. During his reign he defeated the Hyksos led by Apophis. [see 1571-1550, 1539-1514]
 (AM, 7/01, p.52,54)

1550-1200 The Late Bronze Age.
 (MT, 3/96, p.2)

1550-1070 The period of the New Kingdom. [see 1539]
 (AM, 7/01, p.)

1539  In Egypt the beginning of the New Kingdom and the 18th Dynasty. [see 1550]
 (NG, 9/98, p.16)

1539-1514 In Egypt the period of the 18th Dynasty under Ahmosis. [see 1550-1525]
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1525  In Egypt Queen Hatshepsut, one of the XVIII Dynasty rulers, was born. Her name translates as "The Foremost of Noble Ladies."
 (eawc, p.3,4)(ON, 10/99, p.7)

1524-1518 Tuthmosis I ruled at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

c1520  The volcanic island of Thera, later known as Santorini, blew up. [see 1645BCE, 1500BCE, 1470BCE, 1450, and 1400-1300 for alternate dates]

1518-1504 In Egypt Tuthmosis II ruled in the 18th Dynasty. Hatshepsut was married to her sickly half-brother when she was about 12.
 (R4,1998)(ON, 10/99, p.7)

1514-1493 In Egypt the period of the 18th Dynasty under Ahmenophis.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1504-1450 Tuthmosis III, a son of one of the lesser wives of Tuthmosis I, ruled in the 18th Dynasty. Hatshepsut served as regent and then as pharaoh for some 20 years until Tuthmosis III gained power. In 1996 Joyce Tyldesley authored "Hatshepsut, The Female Pharaoh." [see 1498-1483]
 (R4,1998)(ON, 10/99, p.8)

1500BCE Before this time in India the sap of the palmyra palm was used to make a fermented drink later called a "toddy" by the English.
 (SFEC, 6/22/97, Z1 p.5)
1500BCE The Shang dynasty began in China.
 (WH, 1994, p.13)
c1500BCE Stonehenge, a circle of large stones in southern England, was constructed to observe the seasons.
 (NG, March 1990, J. Boslough p.110)
c1500BCE Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt and established a calendar with Egyptian features but based on a seven day week. The later 8-day Sukkot festival commemorates the fall harvest and the wandering of the Hebrews in the Sinai desert after the Exodus. In 1998 Jonathan Kirsch authored "Moses: A Life." Miriam was the sister of Moses and led the celebration following the crossing of the Red Sea.
 (K.I.-365D, p.58)(SFEC,10/19/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 12/13/98, BR p.5)(WSJ, 4/7/00, p.W17)
c1500BCE Linguistic evidence shows that the Canaanites (now more commonly known as the Phoenicians) were non-Jewish Semites whose language was almost identical with Hebrew.
 (MT, Spg. '97, p.12)
c1500BCE Egyptian tombs show paintings of apparently Cretan messengers and merchants, called by the name Keftiu, bearing Cretan goods: and in addition we find the actual tangible goods themselves, deposited with the Egyptian dead.
 (R.M.-P.H.C.p.17)
c1500BCE In 1978 Greek grave robbers at Aidonia dug into ancient tombs believed to be a 3,500-year-old palatial cemetery of the Mycenaeneans. The looters plundered 18 graves but left one undisturbed. Objects from the single pit provided archeologists evidence to match the objects of an attempted 1993 sale.
 (SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)
c1500BCE The Mayans began to process rubber using latex from rubber trees mixed with juice from the morning glory vine. The rubber was used to make a bouncy ball for their ball games.
 (SFC, 6/19/99, p.A9)
1500  By this time the kingdom of Kush was established south of Egypt. The Kushites were dark-complexioned Negroids.
 (eawc, p.4)
c1500BCE A settlement was founded on the River Sarno 6 miles northeast of Pompeii. It was abandoned after being destroyed by a flood in the 6th century BC. It was uncovered by archeologists in 2000.
 (SFC, 3/22/02, p.A10)
1500  The explosion of Thira (Thera or Santorini) released energy equal to 200,000 H-bombs. [see 1645BCE and 1470BCE]
 (NH, 5/96, p.3)
1500BCE Akrotiri on Santorini was flooded and covered by pumice and volcanic ash. The 30,000 inhabitants probably had advanced warning because no skeletons have been found.
 (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T6)
1500BCE Chersonesos on the edge of Sevastopol was the Greek world's most northern colony.
 (SFC,12/19/97, p.F6)

1500-1400 The Canaanite "Poem of Aqhat," a work of seasonal writing, dates to this time.
 (SFEC, 1/31/99, BR p.9)

1500-1200BCE The Late Bronze Age. The Amorites in the time of Moses came from northeast Syria. The languages of northeast Syria and Palestine appear to have been 1/3 Semitic, 1/3 Indo-European and 1/3 Hurrian.
 (MT, Spg. '97, p.11)

1500-1100BCE Evidence found in 1998 revealed terraced farming for corn back to this time in northeast Mexico on a hilltop overlooking the Rio Casa Grandes.
 (SFC, 3/13/98, p.A11)

1500-1000BCE Nubia was colonized by Egypt.
 (MT, 10/95, p.10-11)

1500-300BCE The Lapita archaeological culture of the Western Pacific. It represents an Austronesian-speaking Neolithic population that colonized Oceania.
 (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.22)

1500BCE-400CE This period of Greek history was covered by Charles Freeman in his 1999 book "The Greek Achievement."
 (WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A20)

1498-1483 Queen Hatshepsut ruled in the 18th Dynasty. [see 1504-1450]
 (R4,1998)

1493-1483 In Egypt the period of the 18th Dynasty under Thutmosis I.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1491BCE Tuthmosis engaged the vile enemy of Kadesh at the famous Battle of Megiddo. Here the young Pharaoh surprised the enemy by approaching on a route that was narrow and dangerous and therefore totally unexpected.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.80-83)

1490-1436BCE  Tuthmosis III, ruled as Pharaoh of Egypt. In the 15th cent. BCE Thutmose III led his army from Egypt to Megiddo and outflanked the chariots of the Canaanite forces that had revolted against him. [see 1479-1426]
 (L.C.-W.P.p.87-89)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)

1483-1479 In Egypt the period of the 18th Dynasty under Thutmosis II. Indus Civilization destroyed by floods.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1479-1458 In Egypt the period of the 18th Dynasty under Hatshepsut.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1479-1426 The period of the 18th Dynasty under Thutmosis III. [see 1490-1436]
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1470BCE The volcano Thera, or Santorini, erupted in the Mediterranean. It may correspond to the ninth plague of Egypt recorded in Exodus as the "darkness over Egypt." [see 1645BCE and 1500BCE for alternate date]
 (NOHY, 3/90, p.129)

1468BCE In Egypt Hatshepsut died and Tuthmosis III, in his early thirties, declared war on the Prince of the Syrian city of Kadesh, who had organized a confederacy in Palestine and Syria. Tuthmosis defeated the Syrians following an 8 month siege of Megiddo.
 (ON, 3/01, p.11)

1457BCE Tuthmosis III, Pharaoh of Egypt, built rafts on the Lebanese coast, put them on wagons, and transported them to the Euphrates in order to cross the river and defeat the King of Mitanni. This was his eighth campaign in the thirty-third year of his reign. This was well over 250 miles. He died in the fifty-fourth year of his reign. An inscription at Napata in Nubia tells us about this.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.87-89)

1453-1419 Amenhotep II ruled in the 18th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

c1450BCE The eruption of the volcano on Santorini Island triggered earthquakes and tidal waves that may have destroyed most of the Minoan cities and palaces. In 1939 Spyridon Marinatos authored "The Volcanic Destruction of Minoan Crete."  [see 1470BCE]
 (SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T11)(AM, 7/00, p.41)

1450-1300 The Hittite culture reached its highpoint and dominated the territory North and East of Babylon including Turkey and northern Palestine. By this time the Hittites have constructed a mythology with a state pantheon.
 (eawc, p.4)

1436-1412 Amenophis II, son of Tuthmosis, Pharaoh of Egypt. In the same Giza stele which describes his prowess with a 33-foot oar, there is an account of his skill as a archer. There is no doubt that he did conquer the Asiatic powers of Djahi, Retenu, Mitanni, and 'God's Land'.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.91-92)

1426-1400 In Egypt the period of the 18th Dynasty under Amenophis II.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1419-1386 Tuthmosis IV ruled in the 18th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

c1405  Tuthmosis IV, Pharaoh of Egypt. Succeeded by Amenophis III.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.105)

1400BCE Around Greece after the destruction of Knossos the Mycenaean civilization replaced the Minoan. Bronze weapons, war scenes on art, Cyclopean defense walls and the burial of male warriors with their weapons indicates that the Mycenaeans were militaristic. The horse drawn chariot emerged about this time. The Mycenaeans dominated the Aegean world for about 200 years.
 (eawc, p.4)
1400BCE Michael Ventris (d.1956) and John Chadwick (d.1998 at 78) in 1956 published "Documents in Mycenaean Greek." This was a translation of Greek writings known as Linear B discovered by Sir Arthur Evans at the Minoan palace of Cnossos [Knossos] in 1900 and dated to 1400 BCE.
 (SFC, 12/8/98, p.B6)
c1400BCE In Egypt the Temple of Hatshepsut was built in Luxor.
 (SFC,11/20/97, p.B2)
c1400BCE A major earthquake occurred in the Middle East.
 (SFC,12/9/97, p.A9)
1400BCE Sumerian writing remained pictographic until about this time.
 (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A6)

1400-1390 In Egypt the period of the 18th Dynasty under Thutmosis IV.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1400-1300 Volcanic explosion on the island of Santorini near Crete may have sealed the fate of the Minoan civilization. [see 1645BCE, 1500BCE and 1470BCE for alternate dates]
 (DD-EVTT, p.71)(NOHY, 3/90, p.129)

1400-1200BCE The spread of the debased Cretan culture over Southern Asia Minor, Cyprus, and North Syria must have been due to the movements of peoples, one incident in which was the sack of Knossos (and the collapse of the island of Thera): and this is true, whether those who carried the Cretan art were refugees from Crete, or were the conquerors of Crete seeking yet further lands to spoil.
 (R.M.-P.H.C.p.18)

1400-1000BCE The Third Semitic period, historic period of pottery which includes the time of the Philistine supremacy. The designs had in fact become 'hieratic', and the fine broad lines in several colors had given place to thin-line monochrome patterns... this change can be most easily accounted for by the assumption that the art passed from one race to another. And the sudden disappearance of fine-line technique coincides so completely with the subjugation of the Philistines, that we can hardly hesitate to painted ware displaying the peculiar Third Semitic characters 'Philistine'.

1400-400BCE The Olmec world. The earliest known civilization of Mesoamerica. It profoundly influenced the subsequent civilizations of the Maya and Aztec. They inhabited the Gulf Coast region of what is now Mexico and Central America. Objects of their culture are being exhibited at Princeton Univ. and will move to Houston in April. An Aztec legend states that the hummingbird god told ancient Aztecs to build their city at the spot where they find an eagle eating a snake on a cactus. The site at Lake Texcoco met the requirement and there Mexico City was found.
 (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E3)

1390-1353 The period of the 18th Dynasty under Amenophis III.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1386-1349 Amenhotep III ruled in the 18th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

1384BCE In China P'an Keng founded the city of Anyang. A mature culture with writing and art was developed by this time.
 (eawc, p.4)

1379  In Egypt Amenhotep III succeeded his father as Pharaoh with his capital in Thebes.
 (GEH, 1972, p.64)

1375BCE In Egypt Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) became concerned about abuses in the Osiris cult. He posited a new monotheistic religion dedicated to the worship of the sun. He moved the capital from Thebes to El-Amarna.
 (eawc, p.4)

1360BCE Tutankhamen was ten when his father, Akhenaten, died. Akhenaten's advisor, Aye, became regent while Tut was growing up and effectively ruled the country.
 (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)

1353-1336 The 18th Dynasty Amarna Period of Egypt. It was the reign of pharaoh Amenhotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten, and moved his capital to Akhetaten (later Amarna). The city of Amarna later vanished.
 (WSJ, 12/3/96, p.A20)(NG, 9/98, p.17)(USAT, 11/12/99, p.7D)(WSJ, 7/17/00, p.A33)

1352BCE King Tut, the boy king, died. [see 1350BCE-1338BCE]
 (Smith., 4/95, p.30)

1350BCE Amenophis IV, Pharaoh of Egypt. He changed his name to Akhenaten, for the One God that he wished all his subjects to worship. He moved the capital from Thebes to Amarna. His wife was Nefertiti, daughter-in-law of Amenophis III and Queen Tiye. After his death the capital was moved back to Thebes, and his successor, a young boy named Smenkhkare reigned for three years. [see 1360BCE]
 (L.C.-W.P.p.105)
1350BCE "One undisputed fact is that Tut died at about age 20 in 1350B.C." A later X-ray examination of Tut's skull indicated a possible blow to the head.
 (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)
1350BC The 1st recorded smallpox epidemic took place during an Egyptian-Hittite war. Hittite warriors caught the disease from Egyptian prisoners. The king and heir were fatally infected and the empire fell apart.
 (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(NW, 10/14/02, p.46)

1350-1334 Akhenaten ruled in the 18th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

1347-1338BCE Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt, ruled for nine years. He was followed by King Ay, and then a soldier named Horemhab, whom some regard as the last Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty while others think he was the founder of the Nineteenth. Horemhab is thought to have prevented the dynastic marriage of Ankhesnamun [Ankhesenamen], the widow of Tutankhamun, to prince Zananza, son of the Hittite king, Suppilliliumas. Documents discovered at the Hittite capital of Boghaz-Koy in Turkey prove beyond doubt that the young queen was writing to Suppililiumas imploring him to send her one of his sons so that she might make him King of Egypt. It is suspected that the young prince was killed on his was to Egypt under the orders of Ay or Horemhab. Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamen.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.107-110)(NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.598)(SFC, 8/5/96, p.A10)
  In 1931 a ring was found by Percy Newberry in a Cairo antiquities shop the bore an inscription indicating that Aye and Ankhesenaten were married.
 (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)
  Aye died after three years on the throne and the walls of his tomb showed another woman, Tiy, as his wife.
 (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A7)

c1340BCE A bust of Nefertiti was made that later ended up in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin.
 (SFC, 7/7/96, T5)

1339  King Tut died. [see 1347-1338]
 (SFEC, 5/17/98, Z1 p.8)

1336-1334 Smenkhare ruled in the 18th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

1334-1333 In Egypt the period of the 18th Dynasty under Smenkhkare.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1334-1325 Tutankhamun ruled in the 18th Dynasty. [see 1339]
 (R4,1998)

1333BCE Battle of Kadesh. Certain little known tribes in league with the Hittites against Ramessu II, when he set out to recover the ground lost to Egypt during the futile reign of Ikhnaton.
 (R.M.-P.H.C.p.19)

1333-1323 In Egypt the period of the 18th Dynasty under Tutankhamun.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1330BCE A memorial to the servant who suckled Tutankhamen was reported found by French archeologists in 1997 at the Saqqara necropolis 13 miles south of Cairo. Hieroglyphics and a relief that showed a woman with breast and nipple exposed pay tribute to Maya, "who fed the body of a god."
 (SFC,12/897, p.A18)

1325-1321 Ay ruled in the 18th Dynasty of Egypt.
 (R4,1998)

1323-1319 The period of the 18th Dynasty under Ay.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1321-1293 Horemheb ruled in the 18th Dynasty.
 (R4,1998)

1319-1292 In Egypt the period of the 18th Dynasty under Horemheb.
 (NG, 9/98, p.17)

1311-1309BCE Ramesses I, Pharaoh of Egypt.
 (L.C.-W.P.p.110)

1309-1291BCE Sethi I, Pharaoh of Egypt. He restored the ancient gods of Egypt, such as Amun-Re, Ptah, Seth, and Osiris. At Abydos he built to Osiris a splendid temple... Sethi claims to have inflicted a victory against the Hittite king, Mursillis II, the successor to Suppililiumas, at the towns of Yenoam and Bethshael. [see 1306-1290]
 (L.C.-W.P.p.112)

1306-1290 Seti I, Pharaoh of Egypt. [see 1309-1291]
 (AM, 7/01, p.56)

1304-1237 In Egypt Rameses II (the Great) ruled. His capital city was Qantir, 75 miles north of Cairo. A detailed map of the city was created in 1998.