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Timelines of History
13,000 BC - 3300BC | 3300BC - 1300BC


History of the World

2Million, Scientists report they have found evidence of the oldest human habitation in Subcontinent, dating to 2 million years, on the banks of the Subarnarekha River.
1Million The Jaramillo event occurred and serves as a paleomagnetic marker.
 (PacDis., Spg. 96, p.46)
1 Mil BCE A homo erectus skull from Daka, Ethiopia, from this time was identified in 2001 as an ancestor to all modern humans. Tim D. White and Berhani Asfaw led the team that discovered the fossils in 1997.
 (SFC, 3/21/02, p.A1)
1 Million Homo erectus arrived in Java about this time. In 1891 Eugene Dubois, Dutch health officer, discovered the skull of a human in Java, Indonesia that he named Pithecanthropus erectus [Java Man]. The first Homo erectus skullcap was found near Trinil, Java.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p.434)(RFH-MDHP, p.153)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.A4)(SFC, 11/14/00, p.A9)
1 Million BP A Grand Canyon lava dam created a lake larger than Lake Mead and Lake Powell combined. It extended from Toroweap Canyon back through Lake Powell to beyond Moab, Utah-- a distance of more than 400 miles.
 (NH, 9/97, p.39)
c1Mil  In Antarctica Lake Vostok was formed about this time. In 1999 it was about 12,000 feet below the ice surface and was about the size of Lake Ontario. Scientists discovered living bacteria and theorized that the lake was warmed either by hot magma beneath the Earth's crust or by the downward pressure of ice.
 (SFC, 12/11/99, p.A2)
c1 Million BCE The Haleakala volcano created the eastern half of Maui.
 (SFEC, 8/27/00, p.T8)
c1 Million BP A star in the constellation Scorpius exploded in a super nova and evidence revealed in 1999 that a black hole was formed.
 (SFC, 9/9/99, p.A10)

1Million to Present:
  In the last million or more years several continental glaciations have chilled much of the northern hemisphere and no small portion of the south.
 (DD-EVTT, p.281)

950,000 An alteration in the Earth's magnetic field occurred.
 (E&IH, 1973, p.94)

890,000 An alteration in the Earth's magnetic field occurred.
 (E&IH, 1973, p.94)

840k-420k A large migration of people from Africa to Asia and Europe took place over this period. A 2nd migration period occurred from 150k-80k.
 (SFC, 3/7/02, p.A2)

800,000 Soleilhac, in the Massif Central of France, is the oldest unquestionable site of hominid occupation in Europe. It offers faunal remains and tools, but no hominid bones.
 (NG, Nov. 1985, p.612)
800,000 A few months ago a team of fossil hunters reported 800,000 year-old hominids from the Gran Dolino site in the Atapuerca Mountains in northern Spain. The date was older by 300,000 years than any other human remains in Europe. They called the new species Homo antecessor. Among modern characteristics were a prominent brow line and multiple roots for premolar teeth, characteristics of early hominids.
 (PacDis., Spg. 96, p.46)(SFC, 5/30/97, p.A8)
800,000 Some Indonesian and Dutch archeologist have presented evidence that early hominids in Asia made it to the island of Flores in the Javan archipelago.
 (PacDis., Spg. 96, p.48)
800,000 The Haleakala shield volcano on Maui, Hawaii, appeared about this time.
 (SFEM, 3/16/97, p.28)

780,000 Spanish scientists in 1997 announced a new human species from a 780,000 year old fossil.
 (SC, 5/29/02)

c760,000 Mono Lake in California has existed since at least this time.
 (PacDis, Summer '97, p.38)
c760,000 The Long Valley caldera, a 10 by 20 mile crater in central-eastern California, was created by a volcanic eruption in what later became the Bishop area. Mammoth Lakes was later set on the edge of the caldera, 215 miles northeast of LA.
 (SFC,11/15/97, p.A4)(SFC,12/11/97, p.A8)(SFC, 12/20/99, p.A8)

730,000 A meteor crashes in Tasmania making Darwin glass from the friction of hitting.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p.466)
730,000 Stegodons, extinct elephant-like animals, lived on the Indonesian island of Flores in association with stone flakes.
 (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.20)

700,000 End of the Early Pleistocene.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 447)
700,000 A pyroclastic flow (hot gasses, pumice and other dry volcanic materials that roar down a volcano's slopes at one hundred km an hour) in California's Long Valley was so huge that it topped the Sierra Nevada.
 (PacDisc. Spring/'96, p.31)

690,000 An alteration in the Earth's magnetic field occurred.
 (E&IH, 1973, p.94)

c600,000BCE A volcanic eruption in northwest Wyoming created a caldera some 40 miles long and 30 miles wide. The surface collapsed thousands of feet into a magma pool and marked the area later known as Yellowstone.
 (SFEC, 10/18/98, p.T5)
600,000BCE The EETA 79001 meteorite was blasted from Mars about this time and contained evidence of "microbially produced methane." Its formation was dated to about 175 million years ago.
 (SFC, 11/1/96, p.A16)
600,000 A skull of this age from Bodo, Ethiopia, exhibits the largest nasal width of any Homo fossil.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.32)
600,000 Dr. Leakey discovered oldest human skull to date, 600,000 years old, on Jul 17, 1959.
 (MC, 7/17/02)

600-500,000 The last common ancestor of modern humans and Neanderthals lived about this time most likely in Africa.
 (SFC, 7/11/97, p.A17)

600-250,000 Homo heidelbergensis. Described in 1996 by Donald Johanson and Blake Edgar in: "From Lucy to Language: The Record of Human Evolution."
 (SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.11)

c560,000BP Tectonic uplifting caused the California Central Valley inland Corcoran Lake to rise and cut an exit to drain into the Bay Area. This carved Carquinez Strait and plugged the Salinas Valley outlet to Monterey Bay.
 (SFC, 12/20/99, p.A8)

500-250,000 Homo sapiens (archaic). Skull of adult male found by Greek villagers at Petralona, Greece in 1960.
 (NG, Nov. 1985, p. 572)

500,000 In Boxgrove England, a fossilized rhinoceros shoulder blade with a projectile wound was found recently and dated to this time.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.25)
c500,000 A human jawbone of about this age, homo Heidelbergensis, was found in Heidelberg, Germany, in 1907.
 (SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T9)

c435,000BP A major eruption by Mount Lassen in California left sediment called the Rockland Ash that could later be seen in the sea cliffs of Fort Funston on the SF coast.
 (SFC, 12/20/99, p.A8)

420-290,000 The youngest Homo erectus (from China) date in this period.
 (NH, 4/97, p.70)

400,000 Irish Elk (Megaloceros giganteus) lived in temperate climates throughout Europe and western Asia from about this time to a last record in Ireland at 10,600 years ago.
 (NH, 8/96, p.17)
400,000 Human and wolf bones have been found in the same place from about this time.
 (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A10)
400,000 In 1998 researchers at Duke Univ., studying hypoglossal canals in fossil skulls, suggested that Neanderthals could well have developed speech at this time. The research was disputed in 1999.
 (SFC, 2/16/99, p.A2)
400,000 Researchers in 2000 found evidence from a homo erectus skull, Sm 3, of this period that individuals communicated with each other.
 (SFC, 11/14/00, p.A9)

400-380,000 Researchers in Germany in 1997 unearthed wooden spears made of spruce of this age from an ancient lakeshore hunting ground. The spears were found in a coal mine in Shöningen, near Hanover.
 (SFC, 2/27/97, p.A6)(AM, May/Jun 97 p.25)

400-300,000 Articulate speech becomes possible according to Dr. Laitman, anatomist at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. His studies show that the degree to which the base of the skull is flexed, or bent, is indicative of whether the larynx can move up or down. Early Homo skulls are only slightly flexed at the base, so that full command of articulate speech was a later development.
 (NG, Nov. 1985, p. 600)

380,000 The skull of an archaic member of the genus Homo was later found in Zambia. It exhibited a hypoglossal canal similar to modern humans, which indicated at least the potential for speech.
 (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A5)

370-260,000 The site of Diring Yuriakh in central Siberia has stone flakes and simple tools known as unifacial choppers that date by thermoluminescence to this period.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.21)

c350,000BP Humans left tracks in the volcanic ash of the Roccamonfina volcano in Italy.
 (SFC, 3/13/03, p.2)

300,000 Erectus seems to give way to his successor, Homo sapiens.
 (NG, Nov. 1985, K.F. Weaver, p.600)

300k-250,000 Russian Archeologist Yuri Mochanov of the Yakutish Academy of Sciences announced in 1981 the discovery of human habitation in northern Siberia that dated back to at least 30,000 years. More precise techniques later measured the stone artifacts at the site to 250-300,000 years ago.
 (SFC, 2/28/97, p.A15)

300k-200,000 Swanscombe skull. Fragments of sapiens skull representing Britain's oldest known human remains.
 (NG, Nov. 1985, p. 612)
300k-200,000 In the Sierra de Atapuerca fossil remains of 32 people from this time were found at Sima de los Huesos (Pit of Bones) in northern Spain. They represented an early stage in the development of Neanderthals. Grooves were observed in the roots immediately under the crowns of rear teeth, probably from the use of toothpicks.
 (AM, May/Jun 97 p.31)

300k-30,000 The Neanderthal man of the type first found in 1856 lived over this period.
 (SFC, 7/11/97, p.A17)

300k-12,000 During the periodic ice ages the Loess Hills formed along the eastern side of the Missouri River when westerly winds blew the silty sediments of the melted glaciers along the low walls of the river valley.
 (NH, 11/96, p.76)

c280,000 A mastodon tooth and camel jaw of about this time were found in 1997 in tunnels under Los Angeles in 1997.
 (SFC, 2/12/97, p.A11)

c250,000 About this time the human brain size stopped its slow trend toward enlargement. It may correspond with the human attainment of the rudiments of language.
 (NH, 9/97, p.6)
c250,000 The ice dome at Summit, the center of the Greenland ice cap, was about this age at its bedrock.
 (SFC, 10/9/97, p.C18)
c250,000 In Siberia stone tools along a river near Irkutsk were dated by radioisotope to about this time.
 (SFC, 2/17/98, p.A2)

250-100,000 The period of the Lower Paleolithic.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 447)

>200,000 In 1911 a broken wooden spear shaped earlier than this age was found at Clacton-on-Sea, Essex, UK.
 (SFC, 6/28/97, p.E3)

200,000 A recent theory suggests that we're all descended from one African "Eve" who lived some 200,000 years ago. The theory is based on DNA studies from the placentas of 147 women of different racial backgrounds.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p.434,460)
200,000 Within the past 200,000 years our own species, Homo sapiens, dispersed out of Africa.
 (PacDis., Spg. 96, p.46)
200,000 It is speculated that the Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens split from a common ancestor about this time.
 (SFC, 10/1/96, p.A2)
200,000 About this time a major earthquake in Hawaii caused a large tsunami that crossed the Pacific in 4 hours and up the shoreline of Japan for 300 yards.
 (SFC, 2/17/97, p.A4)
200,000 Human speech began no earlier than about this time.
 (SFC, 1/10/00, p.A6)

200k-30,000 The Neanderthals lived in Europe and southwest Asia. In 1996 it was discovered that skulls of Neanderthals showed oblong, vertical swellings in the bone along the sides of the nasal hole. Researchers also claimed that their noses were unusually large.
 (WH, 1994, p.21)(SFC, 10/1/96, p.A2)

180,000BP On Malta the Ghar Dalam cave near the harbor of Marsaxlokk revealed bones of an extinct pygmy hippo and elephant.
 (AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.42)

170,000 A supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud occurred and was not detected until its light reached earth in 1987CE. It was a catastrophic implosion of matter in less than a second to a dense object about 15 miles across, a neutron star.
 (NG, 5/88, p.629,635)

160,000 An ice-core drilled by Russian scientists at Vostok Station in East Antarctica was analyzed by a group of scientists in Grenoble, Switzerland and is bound to go back to an ice-age of this period.
 (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.67)(See Nature 329, 10/87)

c150,000BCE In 1980 evidence of Aboriginal habitation in Australia were discovered in charcoal remains deep in the bed of the Great Barrier Reef and dated to this time.
 (SFEC, 2/28/99, p.T4)

150k-80k A large migration of people from Africa and  Sub Continent took place Europe took place over this period. An earlier migration period occurred from 840k-420k.
 (SFC, 3/7/02, p.A2)

140k-70k DNA evidence indicated that a hunter-gatherer group diverged from an original common ancestor in Africa and Sub Continent about this time and migration out of Africa and Sub Continent  followed.
 (SFC, 6/9/03, p.A4)

135,000 BCE DNA evidence in 1997 indicated that the modern dog has been around since about this time.
 (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A10)(MT, Fall 02, p.14)

130,000 The "first true Homo sapiens" about this time from Ethiopia and SubContinent. It is described in 1996 by Donald Johanson and Blake Edgar in: "From Lucy to Language: The Record of Human Evolution."
 (SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.11)

130k-30,000 The Middle Stone Age.
 (SFC, 4/28/95, p.A-1)

125,000 Neandertal Homo sapiens indicates that brain size and organization were basically modern. The Neandertals were the first people known to bury their dead. The Neandertals spread all across Europe, the Middle East, and western and central Asia.
 (NG, Nov. 1985, p. 612, 614, 616)
125,000 BP Scientists in 2000 identified human stone tools of this time from a fossil reef along the Red Sea coast of Eritrea and Himalya Range. 
 (SFC, 5/5/00, p.A2)

120,000 End of the Middle Pleistocene. Middle Pleistocene began 700,000 years ago.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 447)
120,000 A Chinese fossil skullcap, named Maba, is stored in Beijing at the Inst. of Vertebrate Paleontology.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p.464)
120,000BP The ice age that began around 186,000BCE receded about this time.
 (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A17)
120,000 An alteration in the Earth's magnetic field occurred.
 (E&IH, 1973, p.94)

120k-80,000 Bone fragments from this period of Neanderthals from the Moula-Guercy cave site in France were reported in 1999 to show evidence of cannibalism.
 (SFC, 10/1/99, p.A3)
120k-60,000 The Klasies River Mouth fossils, found in caves in a bluff overlooking the Indian Ocean on the southern tip of (Africa) the continent. Although fragmented, the fossils indicated early modern man.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 460)
120k-10,000BCE In Thailand the site at Chiang Saen indicates long term occupation that dates back to the late Pleistocene.
 (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)

114,000 Controversial data from the Jinmium rock-shelter in northern Australia suggests Humans from South Asia may have reached the continent at this time.
 (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.21)
110,000 An alteration in the Earth's magnetic field occurred.
 (E&IH, 1973, p.94)
110,000 A Homo sapiens skull of this time was later found near the Kebara site in Israel. It had a hypoglossal canal the size of modern humans, which was thought to be indicative of speech.
 (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A5)

100,000 The last high stand of the sea at the middle coast of California was about this time. (GH-CEH, p.20)
100,000 Neandertal man began to bury his dead.
 (NG, Nov. 1985, R. Leakey & A. Walker, p.629)
100,000 Spear-like tools are found in eastern Zaire near Lake Rutanzige. Three sites along the Semlike River in the Katanda region of Africa's Great Rift Valley show tools made from the rib bones of large mammals. The tools have rows of barbs cut along one edge of the bone. New testing techniques for age determination were used; i.e. thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance, and uranium series dating. The three ranges were: 180,000-75,000; 160,000-89,000; and 173,000-139,000. [see 88k]
 (SFC, 4/28/95, p.A-1)
100,000 Small stone tools found in Gaojia near Fengdu on the banks of the Yangtze indicate a tool workshop. More than a 1,000 tools have been found and were probably used to collect roots.
 (NH, 7/96, p.32)
c100,000 In 1943 construction workers in Millbrae, Ca., uncovered elephant bones that dated to about this time.
 (Ind, 9/21/02, 5A)
100,000 About this time another major earthquake in Hawaii caused a large tsunami that crossed the Pacific in 4 hours and up the shoreline of Japan for 300 yards. [see 200,000BP]
 (SFC, 2/17/97, p.A4)
100,000 The Caribbean rodent Amblyrhiza, a 300-pound rat, died out about this time.
 (NH, 4/97, p.84)

100k-50,000BCE The 200-pound Genyornis newtoni, an ostrich-like bird, and the 25-foot Megalonia lizard were among the megafauna that flourished in Australia during this period.
 (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A2)

100k-35,000 This is the approximate Mousterian cultural period.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 447)
100k-35,000  This is the Middle Paleolithic.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 447)

90,000  An Israeli-French team working in Israel use the technique of thermoluminescence to show early modern humans from Qafzeh cave. A Neandertal from Kebara cave showed an age of 60,000 years. The study was meant to find out the relationship between the two groups.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 460)
90,000  Humans migrated into the Levant if not Europe proper by this time.
 (NH, 7/96, p.72)
90,000  Potassium-argon dating and thermoluminescence can be used to date pieces of pottery back to about this time.
 (SFEC, 12/15/96, BR p.7)

88,000  The Katanda site in Zaire (Congo) was dated to this time. Evidence in the 1990s showed bone points showed barbs on 3 edges and rings carved in the base to tie them to shafts.
 (SFC, 1/11/02, p.A2)

80k-70k The human population declined suddenly according to evidence from the mutation rate of mitochondria evaluated in 2000. The survivors provided the gene pool for all humans thereafter.
 (DC, 7/1/00)

75,000  In 2002 evidence from the Blombos Cave in South Africa indicated possible symbolic thinking. Sophisticated tools of stone and carve bone had etchings that indicated complex behavior.
 (SFC, 1/11/02, p.A2)

c74,000 BP The major Toba volcanic eruption occurred in Sumatra. It was later believed that this eruption caused a major temperature drop and reduction in the human population. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA seemed to corroborate a significant reduction in human population around this time.
 (DC, 7/1/00)(DC, 9/2/02)

70,000  Tow Neanderthal skulls from France of this time were later found. They had a hypoglossal canal the size of modern humans, which was thought to be indicative of speech.
 (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A5)

60,000  A Neandertal from Kebara cave (Israel) showed an age of 60,000 years. An Israeli-French team working in Israel use the technique of thermoluminescence to study the relationship between early humans and Neandertals.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 460)
60,000  At Shanidar, a large cave in the Zagros mountains of northeastern Iraq soil samples from a grave of a [Neanderthal] man of this time indicated pollen grains from 8 different types of flowers. [2nd ref dated at c.10,000 BCE]
 (WH, 1994, p.21)(SFEM, 6/7/98, p.52)

60k-10,000 The Acheulian Age or early Stone Age culture lasted over this period.
 (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.165)

c53,000BCE The first humans migrated to Australia from the islands of Indonesia.
 (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A2)

c53k-45kBCE Australia's early human population wiped out the continent's megafauna over this period.
 (SFC, 6/8/01, p.A8)

53k-27,000 Prehuman fossils from a site on the Solo River near the Javanese town of Ngandong were dated in 1996 to this period, and identified as belonging to the species of Homo erectus. Brain size was equivalent to modern humans.
 (SFC, 12/13/96, p.A4)(NH, 4/97, p.70)(NH, 9/97, p.6)

51,000BCE The fossil of a Diprotodon, a giant marsupial from this time, was excavated in 2001 from Cox's Creek in New South Wales.
 (SFC, 6/8/01, p.A8)

50,000  The first settlers reach Australia. it is believed that they came in bamboo rafts from Indonesia and also from southern China.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p.467)
50,000  Homo sapiens sapiens, man the doubly wise, appeared about this time. In 2000 DNA evidence indicated that modern man evolved out of Africa as recently as this time.
 (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.5)(SFC, 12/7/00, p.A3)
50,000  The stone age culture of Papua New Guinea goes back this time.
 (SFC, 5/29/96, p.A8)

50k-40,000 Homo sapiens (Neandertal). Skull of adult male found by D. Peyrony and L. Capitan at La Ferrassie, France in 1909. Neandertal is the German site of discovery in 1856. Paintings of Modern humans found in
 (NG, Nov. 1985, p. 573)
50k-40k A Homo neanderthalensis skull was found at the Amud cave in Israel in 1961.
 (NH, 4/97, p.22)

50k-25,000 The Berringer Crater was discovered in 1904 to be the result of a meteor impact. It measures 3/4 of a mile wide and 640 feet deep and is suspected to have resulted from a meteor of about 100 feet in diameter.
 (TMP, KCTS-Video, 1987)
50k-20,000 BCE
  Archaeologists have identified evidence of stone age technology in Aq Kupruk, and Hazar Sum. Plant remains at the foothill of the Hindu Kush mountains indicate, that North Afghanistan was one of the earliest places to domestic plants and animals.
 (www.afghan, 5/25/98)

c48,000 An iron meteor 100 feet in diameter and weighing about 60,000 tons crashed into the desert at about 45,000 miles per hour near Winslow, Az. near the current Lowell Observatory. Meteor Crater measured 4,000 feet wide and 570 feet deep. 85% of it melted and the rest broke into bits called Canyon Diablo meteorites. This was the first crater to be identified as being caused by a meteor.
 (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A7)
c48,000BCE Charcoal from camp fires in the Pedra Faruda site of Piaui state, Brazil, were carbon dated in 1987 to this time.
 (SFEC, 2/20/00, p.A18)

48k-44kBCE In Australia about 85% of the land-dwelling megafauna weighing over 100 pounds went extinct about this time. It was later suspected that systematic burning of the forests by humans contributed to the extinction. Some 55 species died off including the 230-pound flightless "thunder bird" called Genyornis.
 (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A2)(SFC, 6/8/01, p.A8)

43,000BCE A flute-like instrument made of bear bone was found by archeologist Janez Dirjec at the Divje Babe site in the valley of the Idrijca River in Slovenia. It was believed to be about 45,000 years old.
 (SFC, 10/31/96, p.A12)
c43,000BCE About this time some 7 women led to the descendants of the population of modern Europe. In 2001 geneticist Bryan Sykes authored "The Seven Daughters of Eve."
 (WSJ, 7/13/01, p.W16)

41,000BCE Scholars surmised that diggers in Africa's Swaziland began to seek iron about this time.
 (SFEC, 5/11/97, Z1 p.7)

40,700  In 1992 rock engravings in South Australia are carbon dated at 42,700 years.
 (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, T-4)

40,000BCE This date approximately marks the Aurignacian cultural period represented by characteristic stone and bone tool kits.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 447)(AM, 7/00, p.30)
40,000  The oldest Asian Homo sapiens are about this age.
 (NH, 4/97, p.70)
40,000  The earliest evidence for personal ornaments appeared in anatomically modern humans about this time.
 (AM, 7/00, p.30)
40,000  The bones of a Neanderthal baby from this time were found in southwestern France in 1914. The "Le Moustier 2" bones were put away and re-discovered in 1996.
 (SFC, 9/5/02, p.A16)
40,000  In later Washington state Mount St. Helens was born and intermittent eruptions continued to about 500 BCE.
 (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)
c40,000  Volcanic activity began forming the craters and mountains around Mono Lake, Ca.
 (PacDis, Summer '97, p.2)

40,000-20,000 BP DNA evidence indicated that 4 distinct population lineages entered the New World across the Bering Sea during this period.
 (SFC, 2/17/98, p.A2)
40,000-Present Sea level seems to have dropped at least four times in this period.
 (DD-EVTT, p.300)

38,000BCE Stone-age humans came to Europe, probably from central Asia and the Middle East, in 2 waves of migration that began about this time. DNA evidence from Y-chromosomes in 2000 CE suggested that 4 of 5 European men shared a common ancestor from this 1st wave. The cave art of Paleolithic man of Subcontinent,  dates to this time. It contains some 11 paintings, 16 engravings, and innumerable mysterious dots and geometric figures. Paintings suggested Aryan Culture evident in Subcontinent. 
 (SFC, 11/10/00, p.A7)
38,000BCE The carbon dating process can be used to date specimens that were alive as long as 40,000 years ago.
 (SFEC, 12/15/96, BR p.7)
c38,000BCE Volcanic activity on Kauai, Ha., ended about this time.
 (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.T6)

38,000-1996 Scientists in Australia said that they found a shrub in Tasmania that began growing 40,000 years ago. Dubbed "King's Holly," the plant clones itself and now covers 2 secluded river gullies in the remote southwest.
 (SFC, 10/26/96, p.A17)

35,000  Human kind does not seem to have been addicted to war throughout its history on earth. Paleontologists believe that before about 35,000 BCE men many have dealt with one another the way higher apes do today. There is conflict among the higher apes, but no warfare.
35,000BCE This date approximately marks the Neandertal Chatelperronian cultural period with characteristics copied from Aurignacian neighbors.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 447)(AM, 7/00, p.30)

35k-25,000BP In Australia Aboriginal rock paintings were made as far back as this time.
 (SFEC, 2/28/99, p.T4)
35k-10,000 The Upper Paleolithic Period. There was considerable variation in the types of tools that were used and according to prehistorian J.D. Clark, a new self-awareness or concern for matters that had no relation to fulfilling biological needs. This is shown by the burial of the dead together with food and weapons.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 447)(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.165)
35k-10,000 A rich Paleolithic site, Diuktai Cave, was discovered on the Aldan, a tributary of the Lena in Siberia by Dr. Yuri Mochanov ~1968.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p.464)

34,000BCE A Neanderthal skeleton from this time was found near the village of St. Cesaire, France, in 1979. It indicated survival following a fractured skull.
 (WSJ, 4/23/02, p.B1)
34,000BCE Researchers have confirmed that Neanderthals of this time in central France had more sophisticated stone tools than their predecessors. The tools may have been acquired by trade with Cro-Magnons. The site of the artifacts was Auxierre, France.
 (SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-7)

33,000BCE About this time scattered hunter-gatherer groups underwent a cultural revolution. For the first time, humans began to create symbols of themselves, of the animals around them, and perhaps of the passage of time.
 (NG, Oct. 1988 , p. 440)
c33,000BCE About this time, or more recently, a catastrophic earthquake carved out the Golden Gate and the waters of the Pacific rushed into the exposed plain to form the SF Bay.
 (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)

33k-9,000BCE Europe's Upper Paleolithic age.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 440)

32,000BCE  Late Neandertal skeleton excavated in 1979 CE at St. Cesaire in southwestern France, and studied by French anthropologist Bernard Vandermeersch. The associated stone tools found with the remains were those of Upper Paleolithic man, who displaced the Neandertals.
 (NG, Nov. 1985, p.615-616)

31,000BCE In the northern Moluccas humans were visiting the coastal caves of Golo and Wetef on Gebe Island at this time.
 (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.21)
31,000BCE Stone tools from Monte Verde, Chile, indicate that people lived there about this time.
 (SFC, 5/23/98, p.A13)

c30,400BCE Radiocarbon date for the Cave paintings at Chauvet, France. The first period of cave art is called Aurignacian.
 (NH, 7/96, p.18,70)

30,000BCE The Neanderthals disappeared.
c30,000BP In 2001 Russian and Norwegian archeologists reported evidence of humans camped at Mamontovaya Kurya on the Usa River at the Arctic circle. A tusk was dated at 36,600 years of age and plant remains at 30,000.
 (SFC, 9/6/01, p.E2)
30,000BCE An ivory pendant strung by a hole at the narrow end bears rows of dots, a common motif 32,000 years ago.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 451)
30,000  Carved body of a man whose arms bear striations was excavated from a cave at Hohlenstein, West Germany. The head is shaped as a lion muzzle.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p.467)

30k-22,000 This marks approximately the Gravettian cultural period. [see 26-20k]
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 447)

2980BCE The Egyptian tomb of King Den showed evidence of mummification.
 (AM, 9/01, p.13)

28,000BCE The Ainu were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Japanese islands back to this time. They had European features, wavy hair and thick beards before they intermarried with the Japanese.
 (SFC, 8/23/97, p.A10)
28,000 BCE Homo sapiens (modern). Skull of adult male found by French workmen (L. Lartet) at Cro-Magnon, France in 1868.
 (NG, Nov. 1985, p. 573)
28,000BCE The Cussac cave in France was found in 2000 to contain drawings from this time. Bones of 5 people from the Neolithic era were also found.
 (SFC, 7/5/01, p.A8)

28,800-12,200BCE Analysis of core sediment from the bottom of Lake Pata in the western Amazon River basin in 1996 indicated that the area remained covered with lush tropical rain forest during this time of maximum glacial coverage in the northern latitudes.
 (LSA, Spg/97, p.32)

27,000  In 2000 DNA analysis of a Neanderthal infant skeleton from this time showed a 7% difference in DNA to modern humans, which indicated that modern humans did not descend from them.
 (SFC, 3/29/00, p.A8)(WSJ, 3/29/00, p.A1)

27-26k BCE Neanderthals lived in Croatia. Their remains were later found at the Vindija cave and dated to this time in 1999 with accelerator radiocarbon dating.
 (SFC, 10/26/99, p.B3)

26,000  France's Dordogne Valley is the site of caves in Le Conte cliff where items such as the illustrated ivory bead or button have been found.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 451)

26k-20k BCE This marks approximately the Gravettian (see 30-22k) cultural period. It was named after the southern French site of La Gravette.
 (AM, 9/01, p.12)

25,000  Sand rock art from Namibia, part of an art exhibit of African Art, is dated to this period.
 (WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)

24,000BCE An early representation of a human was carved from mammoth ivory about 26,000 years ago. It was discovered in Brno, Czechoslovakia. The tiny  "Venus of Dolni Vestonici," more than 25,000 years old, is the earliest known sculpture of a human figure.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 440)(SFEC, 5/23/99, DB p.43)
24,000  A multiple burial was unearthed at Dolni Vestonice, Czechoslovakia. Three skeletons whose skulls were adorned with circles of arctic fox and wolf teeth and ivory beads.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p.466)

23,000  An ivory head known as the Venus of Brassenpouy named after the site of its recovery in France bears distinct facial features and coiffure. A bird bone flute of similar age is here illustrated.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 449)
23,000  The oldest known baked clay figurine (11 cm) is from Dolni Vestonice, now at the Moravian museum.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 459)
23,000  Lake Bonneville crested and covered some 20,000 sq. miles over what is now Utah, Nevada, and Idaho.
 (NH, 9/96, p.62)
23,000  Puget Sound off the state of Washington was carved by glaciers 25,000 years ago.
 (AAM, 3/96, p.84)

23k-10k BCE The Sandia Cave in New Mexico provided human shelter back to this period and was excavated by archeologist Frank Hibben in the 1930s after it was discovered by Boy Scouts.
 (SFEC, 5/30/99, p.T8)

22,500  On Nov 28, 1998 Portuguese archeologists led by Dr. Joao Zilhao found the skeleton of a young boy (the Lagar Velho child) in the Lapedo Valley, who reportedly exhibited both Neanderthal and Homo sapiens features, the first possible hybrid to be found. Jan 2002, Anthrapologist Robin Baron claims to have found oldest Aryan Artifacts dating back 22,400 BC.  
 (SFEC, 4/25/99, p.A4)(AM, 7/00, p.25)

c22,000 The last ice age began and humans in Europe retreated to Spain, the Balkans and the Ukraine.
 (SFC, 11/10/00, p.A7)

22k-18,000 This marks approximately the Solutrian cultural period. Researcher in 1999 proposed that people of this culture crossed the Atlantic from the Iberian peninsula and settled on the eastern American seaboard.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 447)(SFC, 11/1/99, p.A9)

c21,000BCE  In Mexico the Popocatepetl volcano erupted with a force equal to the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Washington.
 (SFEC, 5/16/99, Z1 p.8)

20,000BCE Some scientists believe that ancient people from Siberia crossed the Bering land bridge about this time and began their southward migration into the Americas. In 2001 skull measurements indicated that members of the Jomon-Ainu of Japan made the first crossings.
 (SFC, 5/23/98, p.A13)(SFC, 7/31/01, p.A4)
20-10,000 This was a generally wet period.
 (NH, 9/96, p.32)

21k-18,000 The site of Kostenki by the River Don was inhabited for ~3,000 years when glaciers moved in. Shelters were built partly underground for warmth with large mammoth bones. The site was first excavated in 1879 CE and includes human burials, animal bones, female figures of limestone and ivory, necklaces of arctic fox teeth, and headbands of mammoth ivory.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 449)

18,000BCE Innovations in weapon design included the spear thrower invented about this time.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 451)
c18,000 In 1999 a French-led expedition chopped clear the fully preserved carcass of a 20 thousand-year-old woolly mammoth, the "Jarkov Mammoth," from the permafrost of Siberia at Khatanga, Russia.
 (SFC, 10/21/99, p.A1)
c18,000 Researchers in 1999 proposed that Solutrean people crossed the Atlantic from the Iberian peninsula and settled on the eastern American seaboard.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 447)(SFC, 11/1/99, p.A9)

18k-11,000 This marks approximately the Magdalenian cultural period. It was named after the site of La Madeleine, France, marked by fine art and tool-making and the use of bone for harpoons, spearpoints, and other purposes.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 489,495)

17,800-12,800  Tasmania, a Paleolithic site was filled with bones and stones and the charcoal from cooking hearths. The remains are 90% wallaby and 8% wombat.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p.466)

17,500BCE Dr. D.J. Mulvaney in 1961 and 1964 unearthed human artifacts at Carnarvon National Park in Queensland, Australia, subsequently dated at 19,500 years.
 (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, T-4)

17,000BCE A site at Meadowcroft ,Pa., has been carbon dated for human habitation to this age.
 (USAT, 2/11/97, p.A1)

17-15k BCE The Cactus Hill site, 45 miles south of Richmond, Va., was reported in 2000 to contain evidence of human settlers from this period.
 (SFC, 4/7/00, p.A2)

16,000 BCE The last major glaciation reaches its maximum. The English channel was dry; Australia adjoined Tasmania and New Guinea. Venice lay 200 miles from the sea.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 446)
16,000BCE A mile-high glacier covered the area of Connecticut.
 (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A16)
16000 BCE On Manhattan Island the ice was a half-mile thick. In western North America, the ice covered parts of Washington, Idaho, Montana, and all of Western Canada. In Europe it buried Scandinavia and Scotland, most of Great Britain, Denmark, France, Germany, much of Poland and much of the Soviet Union. In the Southern Hemisphere, there was ice in Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina. See levels fell by 350 feet.
 (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.102)
16,000 BCE  The glaciers in North America from New Jersey to Seattle began to recede.
 (NH, 5/96, p.30)

16k-9,000 BCE Sculptures of stone, bone, ivory and clay record animals familiar to the Cro-Magnon peoples, whose artistic expertise peaked in France and Spain during this time.
  (NG, Nov. 1985, p. 620)

15,000BCE The cave art of Paleolithic man of Lascaux, France dates to this time. It contains some 600 paintings, 1,500 engravings, and innumerable mysterious dots and geometric figures.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p.434,485)
c15,000BCE The San Francisco west coast extended out 6 miles past the Farallon Islands.
 (SFC, 12/20/99, p.A8)
c15,000BCE Dogs first began to associate with some humans as people began to form settlements.
 (WSJ, 11/22/02, p.B1)

15k-12kBCE The Solutrean phase of the Upper Paleolithic is named after the Roche de Solutre near Macon, France.
 (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T4)

15,000-10,000BCE The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age.
 (WH, 1994, p.19)

14,000BCE A 35 cm (14-inch) stone head that seems to be half man and half lion or leopard, found in the El Juyo cave, in the foothills southwest of Santander, Spain. Anthropologists suggest the cave held a sanctuary for religious rituals.
 (NG, Nov. 1985, p. 623)
14,000BCE Several thousand engravings are made at La Marche, France, mostly of animals but also including some humans.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 448)
14,000BCE The bas-relief of a bison on a limestone slab was found in a shelter at Angles-sur-l'Anglin, France.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 452)
14,000 BCE The earliest fossils of domestic dogs date to this time. They were found in Germany.
 (MT, Fall 02, p.14)

13,500BCE A sandstone tablet from the Enlene cave in the French Pyrenees, excavated by R. Begouen and J. Clottes. Fragments were found between 1930 and 1983 and reveal possible human figures and a definite bison.
 (NG. Nov. 1985, p. 618)

13,000BCE Archeologist Tom Dillehay and others believe that the first people arrived in the Americas about this time.
 (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.62)
c13,000BCE Human teeth and skull fragments from the Pedra Faruda site of Piaui state, Brazil, were carbon dated to this time. Niede Guidon began excavations at the site in 1970.
 (SFEC, 2/20/00, p.A18)
13,000BCE An ivory plaque excavated at Malta in Siberia was designed with circles of dots, a possible indication of marking time.
 (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 440)
13,000BCE In northern Laos at the Plain of Jars is a site with hundreds of stone urns of this age. 2nd source puts the jars at 2000 years old or less.
 (NH, 4/97, p.17)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.E)
13,000 BCE About this time the Barents Ice Shelf, a vast piece of ice that sat north of Scandinavia, collapsed into the sea. ...It may have raised sea level by more than ten feet per century for nearly five centuries.
 (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.109)
13,000  The Lake Missoula Floods occurred as recently as 15,000 years ago.
 (Smith., 4/95, p.50)
13,000  The Great Lakes originated about this time.
 (NH, 7/98, p.68)
13,000  A supernova explosion occurred about 15,000 years ago that is revealed as the Cygnus Loop, the expanding blast wave of the explosion.
 (NH, 8/96, p.72)
13,000  Mt. St. Helen's in Washington State erupted about this time. It left a sediment of ash in between layers of sediment from the glacial floods of Lake Missoula. This evidence indicates that there may have been as many as a hundred gigantic floods from Lake Missoula repeatedly breaking the glacial ice build-up.
 (Smith., 4/1995, p.58)

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